eonjang (Soybean paste) is made from soybeans, rice, barley, wheat or fatted soybeans. These primary ingredients are mixed with salt and Aspergillus oryzae for fermenting and maturing. Or, lumps of fermented soybeans (meju) are put in brine until the brine is fermented, and the liquid is separated from the solid.
Soybean paste has been believed to have 5 virtues: devotion
- it keeps its taste even when it is mixed with other ingredients; steadiness
- it does not decay for a long time; merciful heart of Buddha
- it removes fish and oily flavor; generosity
- it neutralizes spicy tastes; and harmony
- it harmonizes well with any other food.
oybean paste is one of the traditional Korean foods carried over for generations. Soybean is loved by Korean people for its excellencies in taste and effects.
ORIGIN OF DOENJANG
he origin and benefits of doenjang (soy bean paste) are unmatched with those of any other food or seasoning in the entire world. The unique Korean culture of seasonings dates back to the days when Koreans first began farming and raising beans. Historical records state that doenjang (soy bean paste) was one of the dishes prepared and served by King Shinmoon of the Shilla Dynasty when he first greeted his father- and mother-in-law in the year 683.
ence, doenjang (soy bean paste) has long been one of the most important foods in Korea. Historical records refer to doenjang as boiled beans that have a dark color. This is another way of describing fermented soy beans that have been salted.
orean ancestors later introduced doenjang to the Chinese. The Chinese referred to the people of Goguryeo as experts in making fermented foods and named the unique scent of doenjang 'Goryeo-chwi' (the Korea scent). After fermented soybeans were introduced to Korea, Koreans began developing a new form of seasoning that was fundamentally different from Chinese seasonings. Many historical records state that Korean seasonings were introduced to Japan in the 8th and 9th Century. One of these records is the 'Dae-bo-yul-ryung' which was written in Japan in 701.
lso, the book 'Dong-a' (1717) states that the word 'Korea-jang' (Korean seasoning) has been used in Japan ever since the Korean craftsman Mal-jang came to Japan. Records that explain the production process of Korean seasonings in detail first appeared in the Chosun Dynasty. The 'Gu-hwang-bo-yu-bang' (1660) explains that fermented soybeans were made from beans and wheat. This shows that ancient Korean seasonings were considerably different from their modern descendants. The 'Jung-bo-sal-lim-kyung-jae' is the first record to explain the process in which fermented soybeans are made from beans. This method is identical to the basic principle behind modern doenjang.
inoleic acid and other substances in doenjang can suppress 90% of the production of cancer-causing substances. In addition, there are roughly 100 billion beneficial enzymes in 100 grams of doenjang which soften the skin and aid digestion.
BENEFITS OF DOENJANG (Soy bean paste)
oenjang (soy bean paste), a traditional Korean food that is fermented from soybeans, has been a fixture of the Korean diet for centuries. Recently, it has received great attention from western medicine for its nutritional and medical value. Doenjang is effective in preventing cancer. Soybeans, the main ingredient of doenjang, contain high quality proteins in the form of amino acid which acids aid digestion. Abundant amounts of vitamin A and C can be supplemented by adding pumpkins when making doenjang. Doenjang is also effective in preventing and treating constipation and diarrhea by increasing the activities of the large intestines.
-ANTI CANCER PROPERTIES
Of all fermented foods, doenjang is the most effective in treating cancer.The anti-cancer properties of doenjang do not disappear even when the paste is boiled or heated. According to one study performed on mice with cancer, mice that were fed doenjang jjigae (a traditional Korean soup made from soy bean paste), had 80% fewer cancer cells than those that were not.Daily consumption of doenjang is one of the 15 rules for cancer prevention set forth by the Korean Cancer Association. The cancer preventing properties of doenjang are being officially recognized by more and more health institutions and experts. Recent studies have revealed that doenjang is effective in not only treating cancer, but also preventing it.
-LOWERS BLOOD PRESSURE
The histamine-leucine amino acid in doenjang is effective in enhancing the physiological activation of protein, which alleviates headaches, lowers blood pressure, and reduces blood cholesterol. As a result, blood vessels become much more elastic.
-STRENGTHENS THE LIVER
The liver is one of the most important organs of our body, as it distributes nutrients to each part of the body.Traditional doenjang is effective in restoring liver functions and detoxifying the liver. It also reduces the activation of glycosyl transferase, a measurement of liver poison. Many studies showing the liver strengthening properties of doenjang have been released.
Dfaidzein, daidzin and other isojlavin substances that fall under the polyphenol class are found in soybeans. These are the substances in doenjang that prevent aging.Another antioxidant is melanoidin, which is created as the result of a reaction between amino acids and sugars.These substances prevent the oxidation of lipid, which is found within doenjang, and make doenjang a very safe product.
Doenjang is effective in detoxifying the poisons in fish, meat, vegetables, and mushrooms. They are also useful in detoxifying snake venom and bee poison.
The lecithin in soybeans increases brain activity. Saponin, another substance found in soybeans, is a functional substance that lowers blood cholesterol levels and prevents aging and senile dementia by suppressing the formation of fatty peroxide. In addition, doenjang contains antioxidants substances that slow the aging process. The powers of these substances are strengthened in the fermenting and aging process. At the same time, it has also been shown that the unique browning phenomenon of doenjang plays a significant role in preventing aging.
Doenjang is a food that simultaneously increases appetite and is easily digestible. There is no need to worry about indigestion when having doenjang for lunch. According to traditional Korean remedies, indigestion can be cured by eating thin doenjang soup.
-PREVENTION OF OSTEOPOROSIS
Isoflavone derivatives, also known as vegetable estrogen, prevent the re-absorption of bones and help create new bone matter. Thus, it is effective in preventing female osteoporosis. VitaminD, which is abundant in mushrooms, aids the absorption of calcium and makes our bones stronger.
-PARTIAL TREMENT OF DIABETIS
Melanoidin enhances the secretion of insulin and treats diabetes. Prevention of constipation and fat Pumpkins, mushrooms, and barley are rich in fiber. Fiber prevents obesity, treats and prevents constipation, and aids digestion by accelerating intestine activity.
-PREVENTION OF HEART DISEASES AND BRAIN TUMORS
Protein found in mushrooms purifies our blood, controls coagulation, and reduces blood viscosity. Hence, it is effective in preventing brain tumors and heart diseases.
-TREATMENT OF FRECKLES AND SKIN DISCOLORATION
Linolenic acid cures freckles and skin discoloration by preventing the compounding of melanin. Mushrooms and pumpkins make the skin look shiny and healthy, and also cure acne and allergic skin diseases.
o make Ganjang (soy sauce), fermented soybeans are first soaked in salt water. Doenjang (soy bean paste) is separated from the mix, and the residual juice is fermented under the sun. During this fermenting period, amino acids, sugar, and salt made by enzymes create soy sauce's savory, sweet, and salty taste respectively. Organic acids also play a role in creating the scent and color of soy sauce.
ORIGIN OF SOY SAUCE
oy sauce is a by-product of doenjang (soy bean paste). According to historical records, soy sauce has been produced and used ever since the Goguryeo Period.There are various types of soy sauce, from haet soy sauce (fresh soy sauce) which is used in soups and seasoned vegetables to jin soy sauce (aged soy sauce) which is used in roasted, steamed, or hard-boiled dishes that have a dark color. Each type has a unique taste and is used for different purposes.According to Korean history, there was once a place called 'Jang-Gwang' in the heart of Seoul. Soy sauces of various ages were stored in more than 500 crocks (jars) at Jang-Gwang. Records show soy sauce made in 1907 were stored at Jang-Gwang until the break of the Korean War in 1950.
EFFECT OF SOY SAUCE
oybean, an ingredient of soybean sauce, consists of 40% protein, 20% , 20% soluble nitrogen-free extract, 14% fermentable sugar, 10% water, 5.5% ash, 5.5% and vitamins.
raditional Korean soybean sauce is made from soybeans only. The soluble carbohydrates contained in soybeans, such as sucrose, stachyose and raffinose, are used by micro-organisms such as bacillus subtilis, lactic acid germs, enzyme and fungi while soybeans are fermented. Therefore, little carbohydrates remain in finished meju (fermented soybeans).
Because of a low content of fermentable carbohydrates, fermented liquid diluted with brine contains 0.7% lactic acid, but alcoholic fermentation rarely occurs.
Protein contained in soybeans is decomposed by protease and peptidase, micro-organisms in fermented soybeans, so the contents of peptide nitrogen and amino nitrogen are very high. The content of glutamic acid is particularly high. Recently, with the completion of the "Study of the Mass Production of Traditional Korean Soybean Sauce," a joint task of the Leading Technology Development Project, funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it has become possible to make traditional soybean sauce with superior aroma and taste, containing 1.0-1.2% nitrogen and 1% alcohol as a result of complementing the alcoholic fermentation process of soybean sauce.
TYPES OF SOY SAUCE
oy sauce is classified into fermented soy sauce, chemical soy sauce (acid decomposed soy sauce), and mixed soy sauce according to production method
-FERMENTED SOY SAUCE
There are two production methods for fermented soy sauce. The traditional method used at home and the improved method used at factories for commercial production. Fermented soy sauce made with the traditional method is used in soups, whereas fermented soy sauce made with the improved method is used for boiling, seasoning, and parching purposes.
• Traditional fermented soy sauce (Traditional method)
To make traditional fermented soy sauce, fermented soybeans are first soaked in salt water. Doenjang (soy bean paste) is separated from the mix, and the residual fluid is fermented for 3 months. Traditional soy sauce made in this manner is normally used in soups.The tastes of soy sauce and doenjang are contradictory to each other. In order to make the finest soy sauce, well fermented soybeans of the highest quality must be fermented for at least 6 months.In contrast to doenjang, soy sauce must be left alone for a certain period of time. Soy sauce tastes better and looks darker the longer it is left alone. Haechandle plans to release fermented soy sauce made in this manner in the near future.
• Improved fermented soy sauce
Improved fermented soy sauce accounts for most of the improved soy sauce in the market today. This type of soy sauce is made by pickling fermented soybeans and starch for 3~4 days, in salt water. The entire fermenting process lasts at least 6 months. Improved fermented soy sauce is used for boiling, seasoning, and parching purposes. Our sea tangle fermented soy sauce is produced in the above method. Thanks to the undiluted sea tangle solution and bonito that are added, this soy sauce can be used for seasoning purposes.
When shaken, bubbles will appear on the surface of fermented soy sauce. These bubbles appear as protein decomposes into amino acids, which give fermented soy sauce a unique rich taste. The faster these bubbles disappear, the higher the quality of the soy sauce.
-CHEMICAL SOY SAUCE
Chemical soy sauce is made by artificially decomposing protein obtained from defatted soybeans. It normally takes only 3 days to produce chemical soy sauce. Because the taste of this soy sauce can be artificially adjusted by the manufacturer, chemical soy sauce has a much more delicious taste. (TN content is 1.8 times higher.) However, chemical soy sauce is dangerous from a nutrition viewpoint because cancer-causing substances may form in the production process.
-MIXED SOY SAUCE
The undiluted solution of fermented soy sauce and acid decomposed soy sauce are mixed appropriately to create a milder taste than that of ordinary fermented soy sauce. Mixed soy sauce can also be made by adding carbohydrate ingredients to the undiluted solution of acid decomposed soy sauce, and then fermenting, filtering, and processing this mixture. This enables us to artificially control taste while maintaining the unique scent of fermented soy sauce. Although mixed soy sauce is currently the most widely marketed type of soy sauce, fermented soy sauce is soon expected to take over the market.
TASTE OF SOY SAUCE
he taste of soy sauce is determined by the various components that are created by various enzymes throughout the fermenting process. The amino acid, sugar, and salt content form the savory, sweet, and salty taste of soy sauce respectively. Organic acids also play a role in creating the scent and color of soy sauce. The taste of soy sauce and doenjang (soy bean paste) are mutually contradictory. Fully fermented soy beans should be used in the production process
The unique smell of soy sauce comes from volatile organic acids such as alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, benzine, ester, and phenol which are created by bacillus, sub-bacillus, and bacillus nato. Traditional soy sauce contains less organic acids and more butyric acids, which cause traditional soy sauce to have a foul odor.
Soy sauce has a brownish color due to the melanin and melanoadine that are created from amino acids as a result of the maillard reaction. Browning also occurs as tyrosine, which is a major component of soybeans, is oxidized by various tyrosinase.
The taste of soy sauce is determined by the amount of amino acids, organic acids, and sugar that is created by enzymes in the fermenting process. Galactose and glucose, which account for 1.6~1.7% of the total content, are the key determinants of taste in traditional soy sauce. In the case of improved soy sauce, greater wheat content leads to a sweeter taste. However, this wheat content transforms into alcohol or organic acids in the later part of the fermenting period. The savory taste of soy sauce comes from the tyramine and histamine content in soy sauce.
-A COMPARISON OF INGREDIENTS
Traditional soy sauce has a higher salt content and lower nitrogen, organic acid, and sugar content than improved soy sauce. As a result, traditional soy sauce has a bad appearance, taste, and smell but is much more nutritious.
ochujang (hot pepper paste) is a unique mix of hot, sweet, salty, savory, and sour tastes. It has been only 200 years since hot peppers have become widely used throughout Korea. However, gochujang has become one of Korea's most common and popular fermented foods in this short period of time.
Gochujang is more than a mere seasoning, it has a unique hot taste that no other seasoning can imitate. This hot taste improves appetite and
leaves a refreshing taste at the end which creates a psychological effect that fits perfectly with the common habitude of Koreans.
t is believed that gochujang (hot pepper paste) was first used in Korea the late 1700s. According to the 'Jung-bo-sal-lim-kyung-jae' (1765), gochujang was made by adding powdered red peppers and glutinous rice powder to soy bean paste, and aging this paste under the sun. This recipe is similar to the recipe used today to make gochujang.
FUNCTIONS AND BENEFITS OF GOCHUJANG
ot pepper paste boasts of a long history and tradition. Its effects are as outstanding as any traditional foods of other countries. It has been scientifically proven that it has as many nutrients as soybean sauce and soybean paste. It contains protein, fat, vitamin B2, vitamin C, carotene and many other nutrients that are good to health.
ot pepper paste contains less protein than other soybean-processed foods, but it still is a protein source. It is a fermented and preserved food, and used for seasoning and flavoring. In particular, Hot pepper paste stimulates digesting thanks to amylase and protease gained from fermented soybean powder.
imes extracted from hot pepper powder hinder aflatoxin B from causing mutations. Hot pepper powder makes the stomach strong and helps blood circulation by stimulating the skin. However, vitamins in hot peppers are lost in the process of making Hot pepper paste, so adding hot pepper powder is recommended when hot pepper paste is used in cooking.
icro-organisms such as pediococcus, halopgillus, lactobacillus and delbruekii purify the intestines. According to studies, capsaicin, the substance that produces hot taste in hot peppers, calms down the stomach when it is taken in an appropriate amount. It induces perspiration to expedite excretion of waste material from the body. Capsaicin is also good at preventing and healing diseases, including cold.
recent study reported that Hot pepper paste is good at preventing obesity. According to this study, capsaicin helps reduce accumulated fat. The study also found that fermented soybean powder or substances produced while the paste is matured burn out fat. A diet using hot pepper powder is very popular in Japan these days.
Indeed, Hot pepper paste contains protein, fat, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and many other nutrients that are good to health.
his is the component that give gochujang (hot pepper paste) its hot taste. 0.001~ 0.002 % of gochujang is made of this component. In appropriate amounts, capsaicin can keep the body warm, sterilize digestive organs, and improve ones appetite. It also enhances the decomposition of fat and prevents obesity in the process. This is the reason why gochujang has recently become popular among young Japanese women.
TYPES OF GOCHUJANG
ochujang is a unique mix of hot, sweet, salty, savory, and sour tastes. It has been only 200 years since hot peppers have become widely used throughout Korea. However, gochujang has become one of Korea's most common and popular fermented foods in this short period of time. Gochujang is more than a mere seasoning, it has a unique hot taste that no other seasoning can imitate. This hot taste improves appetite and leaves a refreshing taste at the end which creates a psychological effect that fits perfectly with the common habitude of Koreans.
ifferent types of gochujang are made by adding different ingredients in the production process. The most common variation of gochujang is made by mixing grains in the production process. Some other variations that are made in certain parts of Korea involve adding pumpkins or fruits.
The most common types of gochujang are listed below.
-GLUTINOUS RICE GOCHUJANG
made by mixing glutinous rice powder with powdered fermented soybeans and powdered red peppers, which are the basic ingredients of gochujang.
-NONGLUTINOUS RICE GOCHUJANG
made by adding no glutinous rice.
made by adding kaoliangi.
made by adding barley.
made by adding wheat.
made by adding red-beans. Some other types of gochujang (hot pepper paste) include coarse flour gochujang (hot pepper paste) made by adding coarsely powdered red peppers to the leftover flour of powdered fermented soybeans and scorched rice gochujang (hot pepper paste) made with gochujang (hot pepper paste) and scorched rice.